Yb atoms; electrons transform from localized to itinerant states
Where did those electrons go? Decades-old mystery solved

The concept of “valence” – the ability of a particular atom to combine with other atoms by exchanging electrons – is one of the cornerstones of modern chemistry and solid-state physics.

A water-soluble DsbB variant that catalyzes disulfide-bond formation in vivo
Changing the identity of cellular enzyme spawns new pathway

A previously reported method involving standard recombinant DNA techniques and some novel design principles enabled a team of Cornell chemical engineers to make large quantities of functional integral membrane proteins simply and inexpensively – all without the use of harsh chemicals or detergents, which are typically used today.